By admin | November 2, 2012
November 2, 2012:
I am here posting the death certificate of Diantha Butler, daughter of Luke Hall and Mercy Steadman. To date this is the only written record I have unearthed verifying Mercy Steadman [Stedman], my brick wall.
By admin | February 10, 2011
The following is a verbatim excerpt of “Ancient Iron Works in Taunton” by J.W.D. Hall in New England Historical and Genealogical Register . I have taken the liberty to capitalize all references to George Hall, our earliest known ancestor, as now proven through DNA results. (See posts on this blog for further information.) It is noteworthy to notice the role the two Leonard brothers played in the founding of the Ancient Iron Works of Taunton.
I ask that you please forgive slight discrepancies that came with the technology of reproducing from a pdf. Thank you.
ANCIENT IRON WORKS IN TAUNTON
By J. W. D. Hall, of Taunton, Mass.
A HISTORY of the early iron enterprises in Massachusetts is not our purpose, as the subject has been exhausted in elaborate data and dissenting opinions, but rather to present a few interesting facts and incidents relative to the origin, progress and successful management of the ancient Iron Works of Taunton, derived from antiquarian researches and reliable records. Traditions, which do not bear the test of investigation, have crept into histories and census reports relative to the origin and management of these works; but let them pass.
It has been generally admitted that the first iron works enterprise in this state for the manufacture of bar iron from native ore was commenced on the banks of the Saugus River in Lynn, in 1643, by a company under the auspices and influence of John Winthrop, Jr., son of Gov. Winthrop, with an English capital from London of £1000, and skilled workmen imported for the purpose; that another iron enterprise was soon after started in ” Brantry ” by the same company, and that Boston donated 3000 acres of common land as an encouragement ” to set up iron works on the Monanticut River” in that town, where ore had been discovered. It is also alleged that an unexpected scarcity of ore and incompetent management in their infancy was followed by disaster to these enterprises, and that after spending a large amount, about £10,000, the company partially suspended operations in Lynn and Braiutree, in the latter place in 1C53 and in the former a few years later.
Iron ore had been discovered quite abundant in the flats bordering on Two Mile River and other localities in Taunton, and the enterprising Pilgrim settlers considered the field open for the establishment of a ” bloomerie ” on that river. It was also learned that Henry and James Leonard, skilled iron workers from Wales, who had been employed for several years at the works in Lynn and at Braintree by the Winthrop company, might be induced to come to Taunton and aid in the practical working of iron. Accordingly in October, 1652, preliminary steps were taken to establish the first iron works in the Old Colony, in Taunton, and the following was the record, Oct. 21, 1652 :
” It was at a town meeting conferred and agreed upon between the inhabitants of Taunton nnd Henry Leonard of Braintree :
Imprimis It was agreed and granted by the town to Henry and James Leonard, bis brother, nnd Ralph Russell,Tree consent to come hither and join with certain of our inhabitants to set up a Bloomery Work on the Two Mile Hirer.
” It was also agreed and granted by a free rote of the town, that such particular inhabitants as shall concur together with the said persons in this design, shall have free liberty from the town so to do, to build and set up this work, and that they shall have the woods on either side of the Two Mile River, wheresoever it is common on that side of the river, to cut for their cord wood to make coals, and also to dig nnd take moine or ore at Two Mile Meadow, or in any of the commons appertaining to the town, where it is not now in propriety.”*
In accordance with the above preliminary action, the leading citizens of Taunton interested in the enterprise, formed a stock company, invitiug
• Baylics’s Historical Memoir of the Colony of New Plymouth, Tart 11. p. 268.
Vol. Xxxviii. 24
capitalists in other places to join them in carrying the project into effect without the aid of English capital—and they succeeded. To obtain the shareholders required some length of time; but the precise date when they were obtained has not been fully ascertained, nor is it known when the brothers Leonard and Mr. Russell came from Braintree. Probably it was soon after the suspension of the iron works there in 1G53. Nor is there any record that Henry Leonard or Ralph Russell were employed in these works. They had land ” set off to them ” by the proprietors ” as encouragement,” but they did not remain to occupy it. Russell went to Dartmouth and soon after was engaged in starting iron works at ” Russell’s Mills.” Henry Leonard was at Lynn in 1655, says Newhall the historian, and some years later was engaged with his sons by a wealthy company of Salem in an iron works at Rowley Village. He afterwards weut to New Jersey, and, it is said, successfully engaged with a company in the manufacture of bar iron. He has left in that state numerous descendants, among whom are men of ability and of prominent standing in business and the professions.
A documentary relic of the early date above referred to, recently found among ancient papers in the handwriting of Oliver Purchis, who was town clerk at the time, makes the following record preparatory to the organization of the Iron Works Company in 1653-4:
” The names of those who hath put in themselves to be proprietors in the Bloomerie, viz :—Uezekiah Hoare, Thomns Gilbert, Richard Will iains, Walter Dean, GEORGE HALL, Oliver Purchis, .(amen Walker, John Tisdall, Win. Parker, Mr. Gilbert senr: Peter Pitts, Richard Stacey, John Cobb, William Hodges, Nath’l Woodward, Timothy Holloway, James Burt, Edward Bobctt, Jonah Austin, sen’r, John Parker, Samuel Wilbore, Miss E Pole, Jane Pole.”
Additional records show the names of William Pole, Timothy Lindall of Salem, his son-in-law, Nicholas White, senr., Richard Stephens, John Turner, Thomas Lincoln, senr., Anthony Slocum, James Leonard, Tlios. Armsbe ry, Joseph Wilbore, Henry Andrews, John Hall, James Phillips, Francis Smith, Geo. Watson, Gov. Leverett and Major Edward Tyng of Boston, Nath’l Paine, senr., and Stephen Paine of Rehoboth, John Cary and Nath’l Paine, Jr., of Bristol, Benedict Arnold of Newport, Richard Thayer of Braintree—contributing from £20 to £5 each, for whole, half and quarter shares.
The building of a suitable dam across ” Two Mile River,” where was previously a bridge ; preparing the timber for the necessary buildings; obtaining from abroad the hammers and heavy iron machiuery and tools required for operating the ” bloomerie ” for the manufacture of bar iron, occupied a long time before the practical working of the same.
The following confirmatory record in a ledger0 of Capt. Thomas* Leonard, son of James,’ who was with his father a ” bloomer,” and became the ” clearke ” and manager in 1683, indicates the time the works commenced, as follows:
• This ledger was found In the old mansion built In 1750 by Dca. Elijah5 Leonard, grandson of Capt. Thomas,* who had carefully stored the books transmitted to him by his father and grandfather, when he built the house. It was the birthplace of Capt. Edward Leonard, who resided there seventy years, and of Rev. Elijah Leonard, of Marshficld, who died In February, 1834, after a forty-five years’ pastorate, and the father of Rev. Geo. Leonard, who died ill July, 1881, after a pastorate of thirty years in the same Marshficld church, and who Inherited the old place In Raynham from his uncle Capt. Edward. It was sold a few years ago to Mr. John Spinney, who In preparing to remodel the old mansion discovered the books deposited there one hundred und thirty years before. It was destroyed by fire shortly afterwards.
” An nccompt of who hath been cUrke of Taunton Iron Works ever since GEORGE HALL was first Clcnrke, nnd some others joyned with him for a time, which begun Anno 1656. Also, what product the works huth made from year to year.”
By this record, which has descended through two hundred )’ears, and whose authority is undoubted, it is shown that the manufacture of iron was commenced ” Anno 1656.” On a page of this ledger are two columns of figures, indicating the years and the product of the works fifty-eight years, from that date, to the death of Capt. Thomas in 1713. The first line reads thus: ” 1656—George Hall clearke, John Turner working ye forge.” Three years no iron was shared. “1659,400 shared.” ” 1660, a ton of iron sould to buy goods, win: were devided.”
At this time an arrangement was made by the shareholders by which the works were leased to GEORGE HALL and his associates, Hezekiah Hoar and Francis Smith. The lease of this transaction, recently discovered among the papers of Capt. Thomas Leonard, thus sets forth iu substance the agreement:
” This present writing, dated April the first, anno domini, one thousand six hundred and sixtie. witnesseth : that whereas the Companie in partnership in the Iron works or hloomerie, erected and maintained in working use within tho plantation of Taunton, in tho Colony of New Plymouth, did hy themselves and their attornies, generally consent and agree, that y« said works should he let for a term of five years; to begin after y° stock of coles is now being wrought out—yielding and paying to ye whole companie aforesaid, (not one partner at all excluded) yearly during said term the full summe of four tunne of iron:”—” thnt said Gcorga Hall. Hezekiah Hoar and Francis Smith hnvins embraced, accepted, and received said tender, and rent of yc works, according to yc said propositions named.* themselves being partners “—and ” to whom full lihertie was then and there given, that they might take into this contract with themselves whom they liked of.” Thev accordingly took into partnership : William Pole, Walter T)eane. Joseph Wilhore, John Denne, Anthony Slocum, Thos. Linkon, senr. Wm. Parker, James L-onnrd, Jonah Austin sen’r. John Parker, Peter Pitts, James Phillips. Henry Withington. of Dorchester. ” The rest of said company in partnership, do by these present* ratify, confirm, establish, promise and make good and effectual to the s”d GEORGE HALL. Hezekiah Hoar, and Francis Smith, the said contract, and do hereby give them full power and right to act, or cause to be acted or done in and about said iron works in every particular case during yc said term without interruption, molestation or hindrance of y« partners, provided that thev truly and faithfully perform their engagements in the premises. . . . And the said partners, Win. Pole, Walter Denne and others, doe likewise covenant, promise and ensnge themselves, unto said GEORGE HALL, Hezekiah Hoarc nnd Francis Smith, to enrrie out said contract as one man, with faithfulness, according to their wisdom and abilities; that they will endeavor to prevent all damages and support each other in all cases, whether in charges of payments or troubles of lawsuits nnd walk together in kite and peaco in the light of God, without sunerioritie one over another.”
” Tn witness whereof they herewith to one seal set their several hands the day and year above written :
Georqs Halt., IlraEKun Hoark, Francis Ssiim, [Seal.] Wm. Pole, Henry Withington, Jno. Deane, Wm. Parker, Walter Deane, Peter Pitts, Joseph Wilhore, James Phillips. John Parker, Anthony Slocum, Thos. Linkon sen., Jonah Austin.” ” In presence of
John Hatheway, Sam’l Linkon.
Resuming the old ledger records. George Hall held the position of manager and claike thirteen years (excepting James Walker held the office a year) until his death in October, 1669, anil ” John Hull to y * end of y0 year.”
Drawn by James Walker, Richard Williams and John Tisdall, of said company.
« PreviousContinue »
“1G70, Henry Andrews clearke.” “1671, John Hall, thence to 1675 when (says the record) tho Indian [King Philip's] War began and many coals burned in the woods.” ” 1676—the works garrisoned—great rates— many coals burned.” (No iron shared three years.) “1677, Israel Dean clenrke. y” beginning, John Hall y° end of yc year.” Hall continued until 1683, and was succeeded by Capt. Thomas Leonard, during whose thirty years’ management occurred most of the transactions and ” orders ” recorded below in connection with this brief history of the most important enterprise in the early days of the Old Colony. He was an able, self-educated man ; he held military commissions from Ensign to Major in the Bristol County regiment; was the leading magistrate; presiding justice of the County Court, 1685 to 1693; clerk of the Taunton North Purchase proprietors, over twenty years ; filled various town offices ; also performed the duties of physician. He died in 1713, at the a^.e of 70, leaving, besides a large estate, the Middleboro’ and Chartley Iron Works, a large quantity of official papers and miscellaneous relics, preserved with remarkable care during his eventful life.*
Dea. Samuel’ Leonard, in Oct. 1713, succeeded his father Capt. Thomas after many years of successful management. Another ancient ledger contains an instructive record of the transactions in the business during his charge; many pages are filled with items of the bar iron “circulating medium” and barter trades, similar to those appended. On the division of Taunton in 1731, the iron works locality fell to the new town of Rayuhani, and that town owned half a share. Dea. Leonard died in 1745, after thirty-two years’ service, owning several shares.
Dea. Samuel Leonard, Jr., was the successor of his father in the management of the iron works. He had, during his four years’ management, purchased a large number of whole and fractional shares, securing nearly a majority of the stock. He died in 1749, leaving a large incumbrance on the works and a declining stock. He left 12 shares, valued in his inventory at £C60 of the common currency.t
Dea. Elijah Leonard, who had been at the ” Chartley Works ” in Norton, succeeded his brother in 1749, as clerk and manager. He soon afterwards built, a short distance east of the forge, the mansion referred to. He remained in charge of the business until 1777. During the last twenty years the shares had been depreciating in value, owing to the increasing price of coal, and the declining production of good ore, in competition with the New Jersey ore which contained a much larger percentage of pure iron, and was worked by competing establishments. With a depreciating currency and other obstacles, the iron business waned, the works hardly met expenses, the shareholders received trifling or no dividends, and the shares were relinquished at great sacrifice. The incumbrance on the works finally resulted in tho sale of a large portion of the shares to Dea. George Leonard, brother of Dea. Elijah, who in 1770 disposed of them (7J sixteenths) to
• Tlic salary of Capt. Thomas was £8 the first year, and from 1684 to 1713 it was £11. His successor received tlic same amount. From 1742 to 1745, and thereafter, ” ten hundred of iron was voted for salary.” They also received a percentage on the iron manufactured. Tlic win ks made from 20 to 30 tons annually, which brought from £400 to £075, averaging about $100 a ton of our currency.
t In 1749 £1 sterling, or “old tenor,” was worth £11 of Massachusetts currency. An oz. of silver, 0 shillings par value, stood at 66 shillings of that currency. Thus r.ipidly approaching ” flat money,” which was consummated by the United States national currency in pnying ofrthe soldiers of the revolution thirty years later, which became reduced to £1000 for £1 sterling, or about #1 per bushel.
Josiah Dean for £90—which shows a great reduction from the inventory value in 1749. At subsequent sales in 1777, tit low figures, of other shares, with a portion of the real estate, Mr. Dean became the purchaser. From the original shareholders the changes were numerous from year to year, and to attempt a record would require much time and space. Many of the sous, and descendants of the third generation from the original owners, held shares during the hundred years and more of the progress of the old iron works, until they passed into the hands of the new owner. The price of them varied from £22 to £20 the par value ; thence to £10, and finally, before the close, to £5 per share, or any price takers would give. Thus terminated the Leonard management, which had been conducted from 1(‘>8.’! by Capt. Thomas and by his son and grandsons nearly one hundred years, a large portion of the time upon the agency system, inaugurated in lU^G, as above described.
Having purchased a controlling interest in the ” old iron works,” lion. Josiah Dean took possession in 1777 ; he converted the bar iron forge, or ” bloomerie,” into a rolling mill and nail works, where also copper bolts were rolled and made for ship-building, &e. It was the first copper bolt manufactory in this region. After conducting the business about forty years he died in 1818.* He was succeeded by his son Major Kliab li. Dean, who in 1825 changed the nail works into an anchor forge, which was continued in that heavy line of iron manufacture by him and his son and successor, Theodore Dean, about forty years, when the works were suspended. About a year ago the old buildings were demolished, and the privilege, dam and foundation walls alone remain of the ancient Taunton Iron Works of two hundred and twenty-four years—the oldest successful irou manufactory in New England.
The pioneer settlers during a long period of the last and preceding century alter the iron works were started, were seriously embarrassed in their increasing business transactions by the scarcity of money. They had but a small amount of specie, chiefly brought by emigrants who came across the ocean here to make their hoines.t No banks had been established—no ” Land bank” capital had evoked even ” new tenor bills ;”t no Bank of England or “old tenor” notes were in circulation, although the pioneers owed allegiance to ” His Majesty James ” the despot, and the edicts of his tyrannical subservient Sir Edmund Andros were borne until patience ceased to be a virtue. Therefore a dernier resort tr> bar iron, manufactured at the Taunton Works, as a “circulating medium of exchange,” to supply the great deficiency. Iron made from tlia native bog ore of the creeks and swails of Two Mile River, and ” Scaddiugs moire ” became more valuable than gold —an important factor in daily traffic It entered largely into the transactions of business, as is shown by the subjoined brief letters, orders and replies, couched in expressions of genuine old-time courtesy, from managers, shareholders and patrons of the ancient iron works. These amusing and interesting scraps were found between the leaves of Capt. Thomas Leonard’s ledger of two hundred years ago, the pages of which are tilled with the records of which these scraps were vouchers.
• Hon. Josiah Dean was a member of Congress in 1807-9, and town officer and magistrate for many years.
t During the year 1652 a mint for coining silver money was established in Boston by the colony, and the first pine-tree shillings made from silver imported from the West ladies. This made but a small supply of specie.
I Paper money was first issued In Massachusetts in 1690, but in very small quantity for the demand. The bank of England was established 1694. Vol. xxxvm. 24*
The veterans Deacons Richard Williams and “Walter Dean, Ilezekiah Hoar, Shadrach Wilbore the second town clerk, Increase Robinson, Joseph Wilbore, James Walker, John Richmond, Peter Pitts, James Phillips, Richard Stephens, John Hall, Peter Walker, and the sons of many successors of ownership of shares in the iron works, appear in the collection, also Rev. George Shove and Rev. Samuel Danforth, third and fourth ministers of Taunton ; John Pole, merchant of Boston, son of Capt. William and nephew of Elizabeth ; Benedict Arnold, son of Gov. Arnold of Newport, R. I. (who married a Taunton woman, daughter of John Turner) ; Nathaniel Paine and John Saffin of Bristol, Judges of Probate; and John Cary, Register; Dea. Samuel Topliff, Philip Withington and John Bird, selectmen of Dorchester nearly two hundred years ago; the polite John Baker, son of Richard ; Richard Thayer, son of the first settler and Mistress Dorothy of ” Brantry;” Peter Noyes of Sudbury, Capt. Thomas Leonard and his son Major George of Chartley Works, not to be outdone in ” loving phrase” by his father; and others. Schools were scarce in those primitive days, and many wealthy business men made their “mark;” therefore errors in orthography, unique expressions and ancient idioms may be excused. The first order is from one of the founders of Taunton and promoters of the iron works, who draws an order to pay a grocer’s bill:
” Ensignc Thou. Leonard, please to pay to Bar: Tipping nine shillings & three pence in iron, as money : fromyr friend, Richard Williams.
Taunton 16: 1″ 1685-86.”
Deacon Walter Dean’s order.
” Ensign Thomas Leonard, Please to pay y° bearer hearof one hundred of Iron y« is due on Mr Shoves act. to my wile your friend.
Taunton y« 16 of y° 1st mo. 1685-6. Your friend, Walter Deans.”
” Thomas Leonard, clarke of the Iron Works of Taunton:
S’ pray pay to Joseph Crossman, on hundred of iron as money, & this shall be your discharg : this yc 13th Janurae, 1683. Iiezekiau Boar.
A letter from some friendly parishioner in 1683, addressed to the third minister of Taunton, and accompanying order, reads thus :
“For the Rev. Mr. George Shove, pastor of the church of Christ in Taunton: These:”
” Ensign Leonard, pray deliver to John Hodgea or his order one hundred and half of iron on account of yr friend George Shots.
March 14, 83-4.”
John Gary of Bristol, Register of Probate, responds to a polite request to credit a hundred of iron:
” Loving friend, John Cary, these may inform you that if You please to Credit Richard Burt as much as comes to a hundred of Iron, I will be Responsible to you, & Rest your Lo» ffriend, Thomas Leonard.
Taunton Dec. 30, 1683-4.”
” lnsign Leonard, be pleased to pay to this bearer, James Tisdall, the assents of the above written bill, by which you will oblige Your friend, John Cart. January 2, 1684.”
An order from an early settler to pay the schoolmaster’s rate :
” Ensine Lenard, I pray you let Mr greene have four shillings more in iron, as money, and place it to my account. June 20, 1684. James Walker.”
” Capt. Leonard, pray pay to John Wetherel iron 9s. and 6d. and set it to my account. Samuel Wilbore.”
” Ensigne Leonard, pray deliver to Nath1 Coddington as much iron as comes to 4″ 5d at y” rate of 18s. per 0. John Deani.
Taunton Sept. 4,1685.”
He was son of John Dearie, senior, and the first birth among the pioneer settlers of Taunton.
Increase Robinson, one of the early settlers on Dean Street, gives a credit order for iron to pay his minister, Rev. Mr. Danforth :
” Captain Leonard : Sir, I would intreate you to pay James Tindole y° sum of 2-7-fi in iron at 82s. per hund. and make me Deptr for it on yc acount of y° Credit Air Danford save mie on your book. Your ffr’d Increase Robuinbon.
Tanton y° 23’1 March 1688-9.”
Thomas1 Williams (son of Richard1) sold an ox to one Nathaniel Smith, and the following orders ensued for payment:
” Nathaniel Smith, this is to desier you to pay to my Mother Williams three hundred & half a qur. of iron which is part of y* price of y° ox which you bought of mee. Thomas Williams.
Taunton yy 1G”1 of Oct. 1603.”
On the opposite side of the above Mr. Smith ordered the iron : ” Copt. Leonard, I pray be pleased to pay to old mother Williams 3 hundreth & half a quarter of Iron. Nathaniel Smith.”
Dorchester, May 15, lfiOC.
After my service to your Honour, these are only to desire you to Send the income of my interest in the works by L’ Robinson and these shall bo the roocpt for the same. And if I could know when you come to Boston, I should lie willing to discourse w,h you in point of sale (it being at such a distance from me) if your self is inclined to buy. t remain y’ humble servant, John Bakes.”
Deacon Topliff orders iron for the half share due Dorchester :
” Caplin Li nurd—pray please to deliver to this bearer, Philip Withington, 800 and half of Iron, the which, by your information, is due to Dorchester: In so doing you will much oblige us your asurcd friends: Dated in Dorchester 8 Aug. 1699. Samuel Toi-liff.”
Cupt. Leonard delivers 800 and half on the order for 1797- 98.
Taunton April I, 1700.
” Capt. Leonard I desire you to give John King credit upon works book for 20 shillings of iron as money. Your friend to serve John Hall.”
An order from Rev. Samuel Danforth, the fourth minister of Taunton, to pay his *’ servant niayd ” :
11 To Captain Thomas Leonard,
Sr I would pray you to pay Elizabeth Gilbert (my late servant niayd) the sum of thirty shillings in iron at 18 sh. pr Cent: to her or her order—& place it to my account ••• pr yr friend and servant Sam” Danforth.”
Dated Tanton, March 11,1703-4.
Here is one of his business orders : Rev. Mr. Danforth wants iron to buy nails. ” To Capt. Thomas Leonard in Tanton:
Sr I have got Thomas Willis to go to Bridgewater to fetch me some nails from Mr. Mitchell’s this night: & pray to let him have 800 of iron to carry with him to pay for them : of winch, 100 on ace1 of Edward Richmond ; 5s. worth on acet. of Tliomas Linkon, son of John Linkon, by virtue of his note herewith sent you : for the remainder I may by yr leave be yr debtor for a while till I have another note from some other to ballance against it: & remain yr obliged Sam1 Danforth.”
Sfi 8″«>. 1708.
” Capt. Thomas Leonard:
S*—Give credit to William Briggs (son of Wm Briggs grand-sonior) & to Thomas Briggs his brother, for the sum of two shillings and (our pence in iron at 18 pr Cent, ft make me Debtor for the same in Yr book: This 2*hl” 41 is to pay thcyr iron part of thcyr Rate to the Ware bridge. Pr Sam” Danforth.”
Dated July 15, 1703.
” to be p4 to Increse Robbinson, Constable for the use aforesd.”
Order for iron “for the ministry of Dorchester.” ” Capt. Thomas Leonard of Taunton:— Sir : These lines may inform you y* the Selectmen of Dorchester, would desier you to deliver unto Surgt. Philip Withington all that iron, wh is due from the Iron Works to the ministry of Dorchester, and in so doting this shall be diecharg. Dorchester the 20 of March 1705. Samuel Capen, for the name and with the consent of the rest of the Selectmen.” Mr. Withington receipts for the product of the half share, 700 of iron for 1699, 1700, ’1, i, and 3.
The genuine autographs of many of the early settlers are among these unique scraps of iron history, and are now in possession of the writer.
To illustrate the annual divisions of iron to shareholders, the following cases are cited from the old ledger records, from 1G83 to 1713, and later in Dea. Samuel’s records.
The oldest original shareholder was Richard Williams, who received in 1C83 for his one share £3 Gs.; for 1684-5, £4 8s. each year ; for 1G86 and 87, £3 Gs. each; for 1G88, £4 8s.; for 1089-00-91, £2 4s. each year, mostly in bar iron, or barter thereof at the stores of Bartholomew Tipping of Taunton, John Pole of Boston, Benedict Arnold of Newport, and other sources, butchers, shoemakers, weavers, &c, discounted at the iron works. Mr. Williams died in 1693, and his widow continued to receive the product share, through her son, who succeeded to his father’s business, tanning, from 1G91 to 1700 each year 2 C. to 4 ewt.; in 1701 2 C; 1702, £3 2s.; in 1703, £1 10s.; in 1704, £0 gs.; 1705, 13s 2d., about the same for five years ; in all 500 wt. of bar iron at 20s. per hundred ; discounting meeting bou.se, town, school master and county rates, and store pay, by tho clerk of the iron works, and occasionally a few shillings in mone}-. Dea. Williams was annually credited ” £2 10s. for a hide for the bellows.”
The town of Taunton held half a share, and to illustrate the amount others received, owning half shares,—in 1G83 £1 13s. was shared, or, “1 C. 2 qrs. in iron, ou Deacon Walter Dean’s order for the school master, Mr. Green;” for 1G84, “£2 4s. in iron, delivered on Dea. Dean’s order for same rate;” for 1685, £2 4s.; 1G8G, “£1 13s. paid by Dea. Dean for ammunition;” for 1687, £1 13s.; 1688, £2 4s. in iron; 1G89, £1 7s. 6d.; and 1G90, £1 2s. to Dea. Dean’s order to pay the meeting house rate of £2 15s. From that during the ten years to 1700, the average was £1 2s.; partially in money ordered by Dea. Dean for school and other rates, or in iron bartered. The amount of iron and money shared differed from the above in some cases, but iron was as much in demand as money, and as available in Boston and Dorchester as in Taunton.
The following illustrations from the ledger pages show the manner of conveyance of iron to shareholders in Boston, Dorchester and elsewhere. “June, 1685, delivered to Nicholas White, sen’r. to carry (through the wilderness) to Major E. Tyng, 7 C. of iron, also to Madam Leverett* of Boston 7 C. of iron; for Peter Noyes of Sudbury 5 C. 2 qrs. in bars, for John Baker of Dorchester 3 C. 2 qrs. and for Samuel Capen 3 C. 2 qrs. for Dorchester church, as their due for 1083-84.” “In November 1686, delivered to same to carry to Mrs. Tyng and Madam Leverett of Boston 4 C. and 12 lbs. each, for Mr Noyes of Sudbury 3 C. 2 qrs.; for Mr Baker 205 lbs. and for Mr Capen’s order 205 lbs. as their share for 1685.”
Thus, without long repetition of other cases, for tweuty years or more, the annual transportation of iron (occasionally a little money) to shareholders, varied from year to year as the product of the iron works varied. The record, however, shows a gradual decline during the succeeding years.
• Widow of John Leverett, governor of Massachusetts 1673-79.
« PreviousContinue »
In 1700, delivered to Wm. Thomas of Plymouth 5 C. of iron for Madam Leverett; same amount for Mrs. Tyng of Boston, as their shares for two years, ” marked L, for John Pool of Boston.” ” To Philip Wellington per order of Selectmen of Dorchester, just 7 C. of iron for the four years, 1699 to 1703.” Also, ” per order Dea. Sam’l Topliff, for the Dorchester Church, 1 C. and half of iron for the years 1704, 5, 6 and 7, being £1 13s. each year.” “In 1720 & ’21, £1 2s.; in 1722 & ’23, nothing; from 1724 to 1732, 11 shillings each year, for Dorchester.” Other half shareholders same amount, or £1 2s. per share. Here ends the old ledger accounts, transferred to later books, of which whole columns are filled with the details.
By admin | July 31, 2010
Dear Visitors: In honor of having recently connected through the miracle of DNA research with another cousin who is a descendant of the Halls of Maine I am dipping into my archives and posting this excerpt from Gems of the Ocean which relays an old version of the story of Ebenezer Hall of Mantinicus Island. Note I said version. After reading this I encourage you to read notes from the non-profit organization Nedoba which documents the early history of the Abenaki People of Interior New England and their version of this story adds details omitted below. We might never know the actual details, but anyone searching the Halls of Maine invariably stumble upon Ebenezer Hall’s story in one form or another. If you have more (well researched) notes, please share below in comments section. Thank you! KH
Footnote: Here’s another link: http://tinyurl.com/2fs73g3
The following is an excerpt from Gems of the Ocean, Robert B. Fillmore (1914)
K. of P. HALL, ALITINICUS
Very little has been written concerning the early history
of the island. The first records show that in 1728, William
Vaughn, one of the most prominent merchants of New England,
then residng at Damariscotta, came to Matinicus and established
a fishing station, employing several vessels. There are still
landmarks on the island, said to be the place where his build-
ings once stood, also the remains of an old wharf, the scene of
the early activities. These fishing stations were abandoned
and we can learn nothing more relating to the local history until
the year when Ebenezer Hall, the first settler, removed from
Portland to Matinicus. Following is the full account of his
massacre by the Indians, with genealogy of the family.
20 GEMS OF THE OCEAN
^arly ^latinicus history
glxc gslcxncVs ijivgt .^cttXcv and Bis I’vaciic S^^^uui
oft by tlxc Jnrtians
/^BENEZER Hall lived at what is called the Back Cove, Port-
^-^ land, Me. There he raised three childrn, two daughters and
one son Ebenezer by name. The girls married. One wedded a
man by the name of Proctor, the other a man by the name of
Allen and moved back into the country in the town of Fal-
Shortly after this the mother died and Mr. Hall married a
wddow by the name of Green. She had three children, one
son by the name of Daniel and two daughters. The boy was 14
years of age and the girls 9 and 7. Mr Hall then with his family
moved to the Island of Matinicus, it being at the close of the
French and English war, at which time the English took the
Canadas and Nova Scotia from the French. He then built a
stone house which he could use as a fort for protection from the
Indians. The French, who were aUied with the Indians, of-
fered a bounty for the scalp of every white man they killed,
whereupon a band of six Indians went to the Island and camped
about thirty feet south of the house between two granite ledges,
on a plat of grass about eight feet wide.
Then they besieged the dwelling. Mr Hall barred the door
to keep them out and was obliged to stay there nearly a week,
surrounded l^y them. In their determination to capture him
and his family, they sent fire arrows into the roof and burned
it. As fast as it took fire Mr. Hall would take a pole and push
off the burning rafters so they would not fall within the walls of
GEMS OF THE OCEAN 21
the house and at the same time his son shooting with a gun
whenever an opportunity offered. At last the amunition of
the Indians was nearly exhausted and in their desire to lengthen
out their supply, they cut their lead bullets in two and as a decoy
one of the Indians, who had in his gun the last half bullet, went
up back of the house and took a position overlooking it and
prepared to discharge his gun at Mr. Hall whenever he should
show his head above the wall of the house. The other IncUans
made what noise they could, walking over the pebbly shore and
hauling their canoe after them. Mr. Hall hearing the noise
that they were making and thinking that they had given up
their hope and were leaving the island, climbed up and looked
over the side of the house facing the shore, when the Indian
back of the house brought his gun to his shoulder and shot him
through the head and he fell back into the room dead. When
his wife reahzed that he was killed and she left without a pro-
tector, she screamed for quarter and the Indians hearing her,
rushed up from the beach and said “Your Sannah (being in-
terpreted husband) will not give any quarter.” She said ”my
husband is dead.” They immecUately broke in the door and
proceeded to bind the mother and the two girls, removing the
scalp of Mr. Hall. The boy Daniel had escaped by the back
window and hidden in the woods back of the house in the under-
brush. The Indians took the mother and the two girls in their
canoes and after sinking one of the fishing boats that lay in the
harbor proceeded to Canada. The boy after remaining hidden
several hours and feeling satisfied that the IncUans had given
up the hunt for him and had gone emerged from his hiding place
and looking around upon the situation, espied a fishing vessel
lying at anchor ofi” in the bay. Finding half a canoe he paddled
off from the shore and when he had proceeded a proper distance
from the shore, he took his paddle and placing his coat upon it,
signalled to the vessel. Seeing him they came to his aid and
ascertaining his wants, came on shore and helped him bury his
22 GEMS OF THE OCEAN
father. He then returned to the schooner and sailed to the
Fox Islands, where the schooner belonged.
The evening previous to the final attack the Indians Ijuilt
a fire just below the house and proceeded to get their supper.
They took some corn and pounded it in a mortar and then
cooked it. They then emptied it out of the kettle into a large
dish and seated themselves around it and with their spoons all
ate from the dish. Mr. Hall seeing them all busy eating, wanted
to take Daniel and three good guns they had loaded and creed
out of the back window to where he could get in range of them.
There he thought he could kill them all, but his wife in terror
seized him and would not let him go. At the first opportunity
Mrs. Hall made her escape from the Indians and returned to
the Island and later married in Boston. Her two daughters
were still held by the Indians but years afterwards were seen
with them in one of their visits to the island and being recognized
by their brother, he sought an interview, but they had become
so accustomed to the wild life of the forest they declined to take
but little notice of him. The next day he went to have a second
talk with them, hoping to induce them to return to civilized
life but it was of no avail.
In subsequent years Daniel took up and settled on what
is now known as Green Island, lying south of Carver’s Harbor.
He married a Miss Young of Old York, a sister of Susannah
Young of the same place. At the time of this murder and the
committing of these outrages by the Indians, Mr. Hall’s son
Ebenezer, was aAvay fishing in one of his father’s boats
in the vicinity of Halifax, N. S. When he returned he found
his father was dead and the island forsaken. He then proceeded
to Boston with his fare of fish and on the passage up he put
into Old York for a harbor. There he formed the acquaintance
of Susannah Young, whom he afterwards married. They came
to Pemaquid and lived in the block house instead of returning
to Matinicus on account of the French and Indian war and the
GEMS OF THE OCEAN 23
hostilities against the whites. While there Mrs. Hall and
another woman while driving cows from the pasture were fol-
lowed by the Indians and barely escaped death from the bullets.
After peace was declared Mr. Hall and wife returned to
Matinicus and lived there many years and raised fifteen children
their names being: Hannah, born September 11, 1759; Mary,
born August 25, 1761; Susannah, born May 10, 1763; Jane, born
March 4, 1765; Ebenezer, born February 15, 1767; Margret,
born March 9, 1769; Patience, born February 14, 1771; Sally,
born February 9, 1773; Charity, born December 1, 1775; James,
born January 26, 1777; John, born December 25, 1778; Abagail,
born March 6, 1781; George, born May 3, 1783; David, born
January 30, 1786; Betsey, born May 30, 1788. Ebenezer HaU,
3d, born March 19, 1735, died February 14, 1813, buried on
Matinicus; Susannah Young Hall, his wife, born March 9,
1724, died December 9, 1831. After the death of her husband
she came to live with her son John Hall and is buried in the old
cemetery at the ”Head of the Bay” South Thomaston.
Capt. Hiram Hall is the owner of an iron kettle that was
left on Matinicus in 1757 by his great great grandfather Ebene-
zer Hall, who was killed by the Indians.
Ebenezer Hall, 3d, died February 14, 1814, age 78 years,
11 months, 9 days. His father Ebenzer, 2d, was killed by the
Indians on Matinicus in 1757. His wife, Mrs. Hall, a lady of
remarkable beauty and many accomplishments, was captured
with her two daughters, after her husband had been killed. They
were carried to Canada, where they were separated. Mrs. Hall
was eventually ransomed. But this unhappy woman, notwith-
standing her life long endeavors, could never obtain the least
knowledge of her children or their fate. The father of the above
Ebenezer was probably one of three brothers that came from
England. He was a lieutenant in the English army and was
present in the battle of Mines at the siege of Louisburg and was
wounded and died at Annapolis, Nova Scotia.
The above was taken from Abbott’s History of Maine.
24 GEMS OF THE OCEAN
^ novcX WSiciUmo,
When Ebenezer Hall lived on Matinicus, a great many
years ago, there lived in the family a girl by the name of Dorcas
Young, a sister to Hall’s wife. Joseph Greene was paying his
addresses to Dorcas at the time. One night Hall invited some
fishermen up to the house, so he said to Greene, ‘^ Joe, don’t you
and Dorcas want to get married?” ”I don’t know,” says Joe.
He started for the cow yard where Dorcas was milking the cows,
and asked her if she thought they had better get married, that
night. ”Why Joe,” says Dorcas, ”I have not got any wed-
ding gown.” ”Never mind the gown,” says Joe, so they went
into the house, Dorcas washed herself, put on a clean apron,
stood up, and they were married, there being a justice of the
peace among the crowd.
The descendants of Ebenezer Hall, who was killed by the
Indians, formed a reunion association in 1906 and have raised
mcney and purchased a bronze tablet, which will be set in the
rock at or near the spot where Mr. Hall was killed, near what
is now Henry Young and Company’s store. The stone which
formed the base of the chimney of Hall’s house is located in
front of the store and the ledge behind which the Indians were
concealed is l)ut a few yards distant.
The tablet bears the following inscription:
”Ebenezer HaU. The first white settler on Matinicus Isle,
Maine, killed by the Indians, June 6, 1757.”
By admin | June 5, 2010
Editor’s note: The 67 marker DNA results for a descendant of Ichabod Hall are now in. This is excellent news for all researchers who believe they might be a descendant of this family. Here’s the DNA panel you will want to consult:
Most importantly this DNA panel reveals a match between a descendant of Ichabod Hall of Enfield and two proven descendants of George Hall of Taunton. Here are the DNA results of one of the descendants of George Hall and of Ichabod Hall.
And these results can be compared to previous DNA test results posted for my father and the same descendant of George Hall (an exact match).
Note that in the DNA test results for Ichabod and the George Hall descendant, there are four mutations, in the following markers: DYS439, DYS449, DYS570, CDY b. Each of these markers is where one would most expect mutations to appear, i.e, these fast-moving markers are where change/mutations ordinarily are found over time. This is an excellent and important discovery that undoes many errors and wrong speculations from the past, and that places Ichabod and his descendants correctly with the George Hall of Taunton family.
Ancestry of Ichabod Hall (—d. 1787) of Somers and Enfield, CT
In 1846, R.R. Hinman published his Catalogue of the First Puritan Settlers of the Colony of Connecticut (Hartford, E..E. Gleason). In the section “List of First Settlers who have few or no Descendents in Enfield” Hinman describes “Hall, Ichabod, Nicholas and John- three brothers who were early settlers in the east part of Enfield…Ichabod settled on the Somers Road, had three sons, Ebenezer, b. 1730, went to Tyringham, Moses, b. 1732, Elisha, b.1751.” (p. 178). Hinman makes no mention of the parentage of the three brothers. Samuel Hall is not mentioned in the work, nor does Hinman give a source for linking the three brothers.
In 1883, David B. Hall published The Halls of New England and used Hinman as a source to place Ichabod as a child of Samuel Hall and Elizabeth Bourne.(p 696) Because he placed Samuel and Elizabeth in the family of Edward Hall of Rehoboth, he guaranteed confusion for future researchers.
In 1929, James Kibbe published his manuscript which stated that because Ichabod did not appear in the list of children born to Samuel and Elizabeth in Taunton MA,, he was probably not of that family. There was no evidence linking Ichabod to Edward Hall, either, once the wives and Samuels were disentangled.
In fact, to date no records have yet been found to link Ichabod of Somers to any other Hall families in the areas of Taunton, MA, or Suffield, Somers or Enfield. – no vital records, probate documents or land records. A land record in Enfield, CT, dated March 5, 1765, records Ichabod Hall selling a parcel of land to Samuel Hall of Somers, but no familial connection is noted.
Ichabod Hall’s link to Samuel and thus to George Hall has consisted of the unsourced comment of Hinman, who merely links Ichabod to Nicholas and John, both of whom were proven sons of Samuel. That is, until now.
In May, 2010, Family Tree DNA test results revealed a match between Ichabod and two of a proven descendants of George Hall of Taunton. The Ichabod descendant is an eighth generation grandson of Ichabod, with a solid paper trail consisting of vital records, probate documents, Bible entries, obituaries, family letters and published genealogies.
The results showed a close match to the proven tester descended from George Hall of Taunton. There are 4 markers with a one point difference in markers 1 through 37. These markers are the ones where mutations are likely to occur. For markers 38 through 67, the stable, unchanging range, the match is perfect.
The matching testers for George are descendents of Samuel. In addition, Samuel was the only one of George’s descendents to emigrate to the Somers-Enfield area, where Ichabod lived. The test results and the close proximity of Ichabod to Samuel’s family allow us to know that Ichabod was indeed a son of Samuel and Elizabeth.
EGL & MHB, descendents of Ichabod Hall of Enfield
By admin | March 25, 2010
The following guest post written by two descendants of Ichabod Hall clarifies, corrects and expands the notes we find in The Kibbe Manuscript on Halls of Taunton. My deepest gratitude is here expressed to these fine researchers in sharing their well documented family history. ~KH
Although the ancestry of Ichabod Hall of Enfield, CT is uncertain, his life from the time of his marriage to Lois Kibbe until his death is documented. He is mentioned numerous times in all three volumes of History of Enfield: Compiled from all the public records known to exist, covering from the beginning to 1850, by Francis Allen Olcott; Lancaster, PA; Wickerson Printing Co., 1901. Most of the information that follows is taken from that work, with the exception of two land records and a few vital records, which are noted separately. Spellings from the original documents were repeated in Allen’s work, and are thus repeated here.
The earliest record for Ichabod Hall in Enfield, CT is an intention of marriage published May 31, 1730, for Ichabod Hall and Lois Kibbe (Allen, Vol. 2, “Intentions of Marriages” p.1756). The marriage itself took place June 25, 1730 (Allen, Vol. 2, “Marriages”, p. 1770; Vital Records of Enfield, CT., Town Book 1, 1682-1789, p. 52).
Ichabod and Lois had 10 children between the years of 1730 and 1751: Ebenezer, b. Nov. 9, 1730, (Allen, Vol. 2, Births, p. 1629 and Town Book 1, p. 37); Moses, b. Oct. 8, 1732; Lois, b. Mar. 10, 1735/6; Hannah, b. Mar. 10, 1736/7, Elizabeth, b. Mar. 15, 1738/9; Eunice, a twin, the other child, male, stillborn, Mar. 26, 1741; Miriam, b. Apr. 4, 1745; Mary, b. Sept.23, 1748 (Allen, p. 1629) Elisha, b. Nov. 22, 1751 (Allen, p. 1629 and Town Book, 1, 1682-1789, p.83).
Elisha’s birth year has been given as both 1751 (R.R. Hinman, Catalogue of the Names of the First Puritan Settlers of the Colony of CT, printed by E. Gleason, Hartford, 1846, p. 178) and 1761 (Allen, p. 1629). A certified copy of the record, made May 22, 2009 from the vital record above, has a note that the birth year is not discernable, and has attached a photocopy of the original record. The year could be either 1751 or 1761. To clarify that the year is 1751, it is necessary to look at the record of births for Elisha’s children (the eldest, Samuel, b. Apr. 22, 1773, New Marlborough, MA, Births, 1734-1858, vol. 1,p. 24) and his own death record, May 6, 1842, age 91, (New Marlborough, MA, Old Records, Book 2nd, Births and Deaths, 1797, p.10).
While Ichabod was raising his large family, he was also active in the town. He was chosen to serve as one of the Hog Reeves for the years 1731 (Allen, Vol. 1, Town Meetings, p. 359), 1735 (pp. 371-372) and 1737 (pp. 378-379).
On December 18th, 1744, a vote at Town Meeting freed Ichabod Hall “of his town & minister Rates for this Present year—” (Allen, p. 401). No reason is given.
Ichabod is known to have owned property as early as 1733. In Vol. 1, “Land Grants”, pp. 230-231, a parcel of land is described as, “laid out to the Estate of Deacon Isaac Pease, late Decsd…Bounded….west on Ichabod Hall’s Land, entered May 15th, 1733…” Ichabod is mentioned again, on p. 277: “hath laide out 25 acres of land lying at Brook meadow…Entered March 22nd, 1737”. In Volume1, “Commoners Book A”, on Oct. 2, 1754, a parcel of land is “Surveyed and Laid out to Ichabod Hall, twelve acres and one quarter of land in Somers…” (Allen, p.775). Ichabod is also listed in “A Table of Common Rights” on page 776. Three more parcels, laid out in January, 1757 are described in the Commoners Book, on pp. 868, 869 and 891. The parcels of land are in Somers, one for nine acres, one for thirty acres and one for twenty, respectively.
Ichabod is named twice in Volume 3, “Town Records”. On p. 2483, it is noted that on “June 26, 1753, Ichabod hall Entered his mark which is a Crop off of the Left Ear and two half pennys the und Side of the Same Ear.” A few pages later, under “Estrays, Etc.”, it is noted: “Taken up By Ichabod hall November 3rd 1761 a Red white faced heifer year old past marked with a Crop in the near Ear and a slit in the Crop.” (Allen, p. 2499).
In Volume 3, “Enfield and Somers Soldiers in the Colonial Wars” Ichabod mustered into the 1st Regiment, 9th Co., April 16, 1759. “That year’s Expedition was engaged in the reduction of Fort Louis at Oswego and the capture of Montreal.” (Allen, p.2640) Ichabod served again in the same regiment and company from March 25-Nov.25, 1760. “This year’s expedition was engaged in the reduction of Canada.” (Allen, pp. 2640-2641).
Ichabod is mentioned several times in Vol. 2 ,“Treasurer’s Book”. This is described as the “Enfield Book for Town Accounts to be keept (sic) in Feby. 22, 1714/15. From 1741 to 1805.” (p.913). The first entry for Ichabod, on p. 913, is undated, but is just prior to entries dated 1743/44. The entry is the third one in a series, and reads “by Ichabod Hall 0-18-11”. This amount is part of a final tally a few entries later. Other entries for Ichabod are: Nov. 8th, 1751, “Paid Ichabod Hall per order 08-05-02”; (p. 936), December 12th, 1752, “By Crossing Ichabod halls Rate in part, 1-12-00”; (p.937); Sept. 6th, 1761, “order to pay Ichabod Hall 0-02-01” (p.950); March 24, 1763, “by an order returned on which you paid Ichabod Hall 00-02-01” (p. 950). An additional entry on p. 986 , dated Sept. 6th, 1762 is “to order to pay Ichabod Hall 00-02-01.” The reason for the payment is not given.
The last pertinent records for Ichabod Hall in Enfield are for the sale of two parcels of land. A record dated February 24, 1764, states that Ichabod is of Hartford County (Land Records of Enfield, CT, 1760-1773, Book 3, pp. 155-156.) In a subsequent sale, dated March 5, 1765, Ichabod is recorded as” being in the county of Berkshire, in the colony of Massachusetts Bay” (Land Records of Enfield CT, 1760-1773, Book 3, p. 248.) The land sold in 1765 was purchased by Samuel Hall of Somers.
It appears from an examination of the original records that Ichabod was illiterate. His name is recorded in both documents in the handwriting of the clerk; beside Ichabod’s name is a circle, with the word “Seal” inside.
Ichabod and Lois moved to New Marlborough, MA, after their son Ebenezer Hall, Sr. and his wife Anna Pease Hall settled there. Ebenezer and Anna married in Enfield, CT. May 27, 1753 (Enfield Town Book, 1, 1682-1789, p. 198) and were in New Marlborough by 1760, when their daughter Susannah was born July 19. (Record of Marriages, Births and Deaths in New Marlborough, MA, by Otis Lombard, 1860, p. 268.)
Land records of New Marlborough may indicate that at least one daughter, Lois, married to Daniel Winchell of Suffield, had also moved to New Marlborough prior to Ichabod and Lois, but further research is needed to verify this. A search of these records would also yield further information on Ichabod and Ebenezer.
The deaths of Ichabod Hall and Lois (Kibbe) Hall are recorded in the vital records of New Marlborough, MA. Ichabod died February 4, 1787; Lois died November 6th, 1796. (Old Records, Book 2nd, Births and Deaths, 1797, p.10). Their burial places are unknown.
~EGL & MHB, Descendents of Ichabod Hall of Enfield, CT.
By admin | March 1, 2010
While the extraordinary book The Seven Daughters of Eve by Oxford University professor of genetics Bryan Sykes was published ten years ago, it has just recently come to my attention. I suppose it was inevitable, or at least organic that when I found, at last, an exact 37 marker DNA match to my father, proving my many years of research, that my focus would turn to include the maternal counterpart, mtDNA.
I will not assume that all readers will know that DNA is the genetic material passed from father to son. But most doing research are aware that most of genealogy, to date, is built almost purely upon a patriarchal paradigm, following the data of the lives of fathers and sons. Indeed, when a particular family line “ends” with only daughters the research often comes to a screeching halt, and the line, it is declared has “daughtered out.”
But then there are the mothers, who are much more work to trace, due to the current and longtime practice of women surrendering their “maiden” names and trading for their husbands’ and thus obscuring their histories forever.
Except for this: mtDNA. For the mothers, in fact, pass along mtDNA to both their sons and daughters. And their daughters, in turn pass along to their sons and daughters. But only their daughters will pass along mtDNA to their sons and daughters. And so it is the daughter line that determines the fate of the history of a family if that is the lens through which we choose to look.
And an interesting fact about mtDNA. It really is much more stable. Over time it is not subject to the many mutations we find in DNA.
“..although the mitochondrial mutation rate seems incredibly slow, it is fortunately just about right for studying human evolution over the last hundred thousand years–which is when most of the action happened.” ~Bryan Sykes
And why would this be of interest? Because through the slow changing mtDNA of mothers, passed along to their children, we have the magical possibility of determining a history that even ten years ago seemed an impossibility. We can discover through a relatively unchanging mtDNA of an individual the geographic likelihood of where an individual’s ancestors came from. More than that, we can discover their tribe, their clan, their original human family. The Clan Mother.
“I slowly realized that we held in our hands the power to reconstruct the maternal genealogy of the whole world.” ~Bryan Sykes
And for those of us with other histories, perhaps just as dramatic and difficult, through mtDNA we can trace our early early roots, back to the earliest common ancestor whose lines did not become extinct. Author Bryan Sykes, Oxford geneticist, has identified seven women who did live on planet Earth, whose lines not only survived through the passage of mtDNA to their daughters (who passed it along), who are the source mothers of a profoundly large number of those with European roots.
Researching this book I’ve discovered there are folks out there who actually criticized Sykes’ spinning stories around each of these women, who, again, really did exist. But I for one thought it was both creative and authentic that he carefully constructs a story for each woman based on what was known about the cultures of the women when they lived on planet Earth, i.e, through anthropological and archeological discoveries of those particular times. I found that tactic infinitely more interesting than a more than likely dry boring description of the pertinent culture at hand. Thus we get passages like this:
Helena spent her childhood in this landscape, helping her mother comb the woods for wild mushrooms and toadstools, or wading in the brackish lagoons in search of oysters. Her father patrolled the woods alone, on the lookout for small dear and other mammals.
Xenia was born in the wind and snow of late spring. Even though it was already April, the snow that covered the land in winter was still on all but the lowest ground and lay in a thick and filthy slush around the campsite. Xenia herself was born in a round hut, about three metres in diameter, whose frame was constructed almost entirely of mammoth bones.
These are hardly passages one would expect to read in a book about mtDNA, and therefore I think Sykes, obviously a fine writer, made a good choice for both himself and his readers. Bravo.
I highly recommend The Seven Daughters of Eve, a fascinating introduction to mtDNA. My prediction is that you will not be able to put the book down and you will walk away unexpectedly enriched and wanting more.
By admin | February 12, 2010
The following is an excerpt from Biographies and Portraits of the Progressive Men of Iowa: Leaders in Business, Politics and the Professions (Benjamin Gue and Benjamin Franklin Shambaugh, 1899). I am including because John J. Steadman is the son of Reverend John Judson Steadman, a founding Methodist Episcopalian minister, mentioned in previous post. Current posts are dedicated to unlocking the mystery of Mercy Stedman/Steadman’s background. KH
Steadman, John J. of Council Bluffs, wa bron in Ashtabula county, Ohio, April 4, 1849. He is the son of Rev. John J. Steadman, who was during his lifetime one of the most distinguished divines of the Methodist church. A preacher of great ability, a debater of renown, he became famous during the discussion of the slavery question that agitated the country more than half a century ago. In Ohio and Pennsylvania, he and Rev. Hiram Kinsley met on the forum the most pronounced advocates of slavery, and history records that in all their public debates not once where they vanquished. As a promulgator of the doctrines of the Methodist Episcopal church, no man of his time excelled him. His public discussions with Alexander Campbell, the founder of the Christian Church, are referred to in Ohio today as the most interesting and beneficial to the cause of Methodism. He belonged to a type of stalwart theologians not today much in evidence, because of the changed condition of public sentiment on matters of religion and the rights of men.
Mr. Steadman’s mother’s maiden name was Lydia Reader. She was well educated for the times in which she lived, and possessed mental qualities and Christian graces that made her one of the forceful women of her day. Born and reared in Ohio, she naturally acquired strong anti-slavery ideas, and during the days preceeding the war sought to impress upon her children–two daughters and three sons–an ardent love of country, due regard for the rights of all men and firm religious convictions as the safe anchor for success in life.
John J. Steadman was scarcely three years old when his father died, in 1851. As is usually the case with Methodist ministers of early date, not much of worldly wealth was left the wife on which to rear and educate her five children. To obtain an education was Mr. Steadman’s great ambition. It is related of him by the citizens of West Farmington, Ohio, where he was brought up, that he did odd chores to pay his tuition’ that he worked on the farm in vacation, and, in fact, did whatever he could find to do in order to obtain the means to complete a course of study at Western Reserve Seminary at West Farmington, Ohio, from which he was graduated with honors at the age of nineteen years, in both classical and scientific courses. After his graduation from the seminary he taught school in the city of Niles, Ohio, one year, and then entered Mt. Union College, at Alliance, Ohio, from which he graduated in 1869.
During his school days at Farmington the War of Rebellion broke out. Young Steadman became impressed with the idea he ought to join the army, and after two or three trials succeeded, by the aid of friends, in being accepted as a drummer in the One Hundred and Seventy-first Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He served with his regiment until the war closed. Before he enlisted his services were much in demand on the Western Reserve as an orator at war meetings, when recruiting officers were enlisting men for the army.
After his graduation from Mt. Union College Mr. Steadman was elected principal of West Springfield Academy in Pennsylvania, a school of considerable standing and large membership of students. During this time he was married to Miss Darcie Garretson, of Mt. Union, Ohio, a member of his class, who graduated with class honors and subsequently became a teacher of mathematics in the institution over which her husband presided. A successful period at this academy opened the way to a higher call, and Mr. and Mrs. Steadman went to Carrier Seminary and Normal School in Clarion, Pennsylvania. They remained in charge of this institution of learning for three years, until, health demanding a change of work for both, they turned their faces toward Iowa, the state of their adoption, and in 1873 Mr. Steadman bought the Osceola Sentinel, which he edited until he purchased the Creston Gazette in 1877. During his connection with the Osceola Sentinel, he was elected district delegate from the Seventh Congressional district to the Republican National Convention, which met in Cincinnati in 1876.
He owned and edited the Creston Gazette for seven years, and during that time founded the Daily Gazette. The Creston Daily and Weekly Gazette, under his management, developed into one of the most prosperous newspaper plants in the state and obtained a prestige among editors which it has ever since maintained. In 1884 Mr. Steadman purchased an interest in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil. This paper he edited for several years, retiring only when forced to do so by impaired health. During the years he was connected with the Osceola Sentinel, the Creston Gazette and the Council Bluffs Nonpariel, he was actively engaged on the stump in every political campaign, both national and state. His active work as a member of the Grand Army of the Republic made him a popular candidate for Department Commander of that great organization. In 1892 he was elected to this high responsible office, and so efficiently did he discharge his duties that a double testimonial was bestowed upon him, one by his comrades and one by the state encampment. In 1892 Mr. Steadman was appointed clerk of the United States district court for the southern district of Iowa. Mr. Steadman has always been a republican, prominent in the councils of the party and honored because of his ability to defend its principles, both in the newspaper and on the stump. He has prospered financially and today ranks among the solid and successful business men in Iowa.
~published in 1899
By admin | February 10, 2010
The following is an excerpt from History of Erie Conference (1907) by Jason Nelson Fradenburgh. I am posting as part of my research in determining the background of Mercy Stedman, wife of Luke Hall. She is here alluded to, but not by name. She is surrounded by people who are most likely part of her Stedman family, but I have yet to determine how.
It has been projected that she was part of the Oliver Stedman family in Lee, Berkshire, Massachusetts and it has been projected that she is related to the Joseph Stedman family, father of Dennis Stedman. Indeed, that family has a Perry connection, and family lore maintains that Mercy had a connection to the Perry family. But, then, so does Oliver Stedman in MA. Another clue might be in the emergence of John Judson Steadman, who was reportedly from Cattaraugus County, NY. A future post will add more detail to the life of John Judson Steadman, who in 1831 was appointed third preacher of the Euclid and Cleveland Circuit, after being “converted under the labors of B.O. Plimpton in 1824-25.”
(History of Erie Conference, Fradenburgh)
Classes Organized at Aurora and Charlestown, O
Billings O. [Otis] Plimpton formed a class in Aurora, Ohio, in 1824, the momebers of which included Dudley Hollister and wife, Reuben Henry and wife, and Maria Ferguson.
In 1824 Ira Eddy and Billings O. Plimpton, traveling the Deerfield Circuit, formed a class in the town of Charlestown, Portage, Ohio. The following were the pioneer members. Claudius Coe and wife, Adna C. Coe and wife. Sarah C. Coe. Alpheus Baldwin, Luke Hall and wife, John Judson Steadman and Edward Steadman. Others were soon added, among whom are named: Dennis Steadman, Watson Steadman, Diodama Steadman and the two Misses Hall. In January 1825, Charles Elliott, the Presiding Elder, came to hold a quarterly meeting, and was refused the use of the little school house beause the “Congregational minister, having the oldest right, claimed it.” Mr. Elliott accepted the offer of a barn. The floor was seated and made comfortable for the women, and a few bundles of straw were scattered on the ground in front of the door upon which men could stand. The meeting was duly held, and Mr. Elliott preached a crushing sermon against Calvinism. It was determined to build a church, and five trustees were appointed for that purpose. They obtained a lot and erected a neat brick church which was occupied by the society for many years. By the close of the year they numbered between thirty and forty members. (Gregg, History of Methodism, Erie Conference, Vol I, pp. 219-220)
The following is a corresponding excerpt from The History of Methodism Within the Boundaries of the Erie Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Vol I (1873) by Samuel Gregg (1810-1877)
Rev. Messrs. Eddy and Plimpton, on the Deerfield Circuit, established an appointment in the town of Charlestown, Portage, Ohio where a Congregational Church, organized in Massachusetts and thence emigrated to this town, held almost unlimited sway, and were determined to keep the Methodists our anyhow. Soon a revival of religion commenced, which continued through the winter, and resulted in the formation of a class consisting of Claudius Coe and wife, Luke Hall and wife, Sarah C. Coe, John Judson Steadman, Edward Steadman, and to this little band others were soon added, among them Diodama Steadman and two young ladies by the name of Hall…
After much difficulty they succeeded in getting a lot at the south-west corner of the square, on which they erected a neat little brick church…”
*Dennis Steadman/Stedman married Matilda Worden. Interestingly, their children included Henry Plimpton Stedman (b. 31 Aug 1834).
*Alpheus Baldwin married Polly Stedman, sister of Dennis Stedman. Polly Stedman is documented as being from MA.
*Watson Stedman was the brother of Dennis Stedman.
Mrs. Adna C. Coe is Prudence Hall, both from MA.
By admin | February 7, 2010
Alpheus Hall6 (Josiah5, Josiah4, Samuel3, Samuel2, George) was the son of Josiah Hall and Elizabeth Russel and great grandson of Samuel Hall and Sarah Rising. He was born in Somers, Connecticut, on July 28, 1766. On September 7, 1789, in Somers he married Anna Sikes, daughter of Reuben Sikes and Thankful Buell. Anna was born 3 Aug. 1769, so she married just a month after her 20th birthday. [VR's of Somers, CT, Barbour Collection]
By 1798 Alpheus had moved his young family from Somers to Chenango County, New York, where he was made Overseer of Highways and, where he later purchased 80 acres on the west side of the Chenango River in the Town of Sherburne, now the Town of Smyrna. He was a farmer. Family tradition says that the above cherry dresser came from Connecticut with Alpheus and his family. When it was given to me I had it appraised for insurance and verified that it’s typical of Connecticut furniture of that period.
Alpheus and Anna had 7 children; 6 girls and a boy. They remained in Smyrna for the rest of their lives and died there. Anna died on July 11, 1825 and Alpheus on July 12, 1832. They are buried in the Earlville Village Cemetery.
When I began searching for my family roots in 1985, I didn’t know much about genealogy research so I drove to the cemetery in Earlville on a whim because I knew that some of my Hall ancestors had lived there. I parked my car and walked straight to the graves of Alpheus and Anna and their son Solomon, from whom I’m descended! Do you think our ancestors give us clues so we can find them? (Conversely, we all know that some ancestors hide all traces of themselves.)
By admin | January 10, 2010
In the last decade I approached my father and asked him to participate in the brand new HALL DNA Project. Knowing how important my research was to the family he immediately agreed. Thus my father became the first participant in this project. Because DNA science was in its infancy I made a determination to remove those results from the project two or three years ago until some semblance of agreement could be found among those exploring this new important science.
This last year my beloved father left this earthly plane and therefore I feel it is not only appropriate but historically vital to all those researching the George Hall of Taunton and Edward Hall of Rehoboth lines to publish the following results, most especially because an exact 67 marker match has very recently been found and brought to my attention. Hopefully the publishing of these results, which I do with permission, and the accompanying links to public sites will inspire and motivate those who believe they are descendants of one of these two families to look within their families and approach male Halls who might be tested thereby validating their research, or, conversely, making it obvious that further research or documentation is necessary.
In the nearly two decades I have conducted this research, beginning with a lifetime of amazingly accurate notes passed on by my now deceased aunt, I have come to realize that not everyone will aspire to the high standards that I would hope would be the guidelines adhered to in researching one’s family. There is also the seduction of the printed word. If it’s in a book, or on the Net, or in a church record, it must be so, right? And thus errors get passed along generation after generation, so engrained in the mythologies of families that rectifying these errors becomes nigh onto impossible. The human mind is indeed a stubborn thing. We do not like change. But change is all there is.
For the record my guiding precepts for genealogy are the same as for all of my life:
to show up
to pay attention
to tell the truth
and to not be attached to outcome
By adhering to the principle of always seeking the truth and to speak up to power when the truth is not set forth are cornerstones of all of my research. This is coupled with the ability and commitment to change records where necessary, because they are revealed to be incorrect. I will say here, however, that it is never my style to set forth “theories,” hoping or assuming someone someday will come along and challenge my projections or suspicions. Anyone practicing that “methodology” fails to understand the Internet, fails to understand their own power and the power of the written word, and fails to understand how these “theories” will become viral, become accepted and will take years to unscramble, if ever.
Having set forth these tenets, I am here presenting you with the correct DNA results of the descendants of George Hall of Taunton and the correct DNA results of the descendants of Edward Hall of Rehoboth. Please see accompanying links for further information.
Male descendants of George Hall of Taunton will find their DNA results look like this:
For exact 67 marker match go here and view Tester #15183, indicating tester is a descendant of George, bef. 1615, MA. It should be noted that the paper trail of the immediate family of this tester is well documented and published.
The haplogroup for George Hall is J2.
Male descendants of Edward Hall of Rehoboth will find their DNA results look like this:
For further information go here and view results for Family 6. You may also go here and view information for tester MGS2N.
The haplogroup for Edward Hall is R1b.
For those of you asking if the results must be a perfect match, please review information on mutations. If you have an exact match, rejoice.
I wish you blessings upon your research. I firmly believe that the nature of this work is sacred in its nature and duty and that the ancestors benefit greatly as do we. Good searching!
« Previous Entries